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What is the London Over the Counter (OTC) Gold Market? 

The London Over the Counter (OTC) gold market is a key hub for global gold trading, renowned for its size, liquidity, and flexibility to participants. Unlike exchanges where trades are standardized, the OTC market allows direct trading between parties, making it highly adaptable to individual requirements. This market is integral to setting the international gold price, a process overseen by the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA)

The London OTC gold market is known for its “loco London” system, where gold is traded in London even if it physically remains elsewhere, facilitating ease of transactions. Trades are primarily done in large bars of gold, each weighing approximately 400 troy ounces. A significant feature of this market is its emphasis on unallocated accounts, meaning buyers do not own specific bars of gold but have a general entitlement to a certain amount of gold. 

London is the epicenter of the international gold OTC market. For instance, consider a scenario where an Australian bank engages in precious metals transactions with a South African gold mining company. In this case, they may settle their accounts through London. The history of London acting as the gold exchange market for the world began at the end of the 17th century. 

What is OTC Trading? 

Over the Counter (OTC) trading refers to the process of trading financial instruments, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, or derivatives, directly between two parties without the oversight of a formal exchange. This type of trading is distinct from exchange-based trading, where transactions occur on a centralized exchange, like the New York Stock Exchange or the London Stock Exchange. 

Unlike exchanges, OTC trading does not occur at a physical location or a central trading platform. Instead, it involves a network of participants, including banks, brokers, and other financial institutions, which trade with each other directly. 

Who Participates in OTC Trading? 

OTC markets are typically dominated by professional and institutional investors, as trading can require larger capital and a deeper understanding of the instruments being traded.  

The market’s participants include major banks, central banks, gold miners, refiners, and investment funds. These participants trade various instruments like spot, forwards, and options. The market’s flexibility, depth, and expertise of its participants make it a crucial component of the global gold market, influencing gold prices and trends worldwide. 

How the London Over the Counter (OTC) Gold Market Impacts Individual Investors 

While you may not be connected to a large entity that interacts with the London OTC gold market, its actions may impact you if you are a gold investor.  

Impacts may include, 

Price Setting 

The London OTC market plays a crucial role in setting global gold prices. The prices determined in this market serve as a benchmark, known as the London Gold Fixing, which influences gold prices worldwide. These benchmark prices impact individual investors, whether they trade in gold stocks, ETFs, or physical gold. 

Liquidity and Depth 

The London OTC gold market is known for its high liquidity and depth. This means large volumes of gold can be traded without significant price impact. For individual investors, this market depth ensures more stable and reliable gold prices, making it easier to enter and exit positions in gold-related investments. 

Market Confidence 

The London gold market, with its long history and established framework, lends confidence to the overall gold market. This confidence is crucial for individual investors, especially those who view gold as a safe-haven asset during times of economic uncertainty. 

Hedging and Diversification Opportunities 

The price trends and movements in the London OTC market provide opportunities for individual investors to hedge their portfolios against inflation, currency devaluation, and market volatility.  

Indirect Influence Through Financial Institutions 

Many individual investors participate in the gold market through financial institutions that are direct participants in the London OTC market. The trading strategies and gold holdings of these institutions, influenced by the London market, indirectly affect the returns on investments for individuals. 

Global Economic Indicators 

The London OTC gold market often reflects broader economic trends, like changes in interest rates, inflation, or geopolitical tensions. Savvy individual investors monitor these trends as indicators for their overall investment strategy. 

How Can Individuals Participate in the London OTC Gold Market? 

Individuals can participate in the London Over the Counter (OTC) gold market, though the process is different from investing in stocks or bonds through a public exchange. The primary participants in the London OTC gold market are large banks known as bullion banks. Individuals can invest through these banks, but this often requires substantial capital. These banks deal in large quantities of gold and may have high minimum investment thresholds. 

Most individuals do not have access to the capital needed to interact with the London OTC gold market directly. To invest in gold, most individuals utilize other ways of participating in the gold market. 

The alternative methods to invest in the gold market below comes with its own set of risks and considerations, and it is important for you to conduct thorough research and seek professional advice to understand these risks and the suitability of gold investments in your portfolio. 


Some banks offer gold accounts, where individuals can buy and sell gold without taking physical delivery. These accounts can be allocated or unallocated

Wealth Managers and Advisors 

Individuals can also invest in the London OTC gold market through wealth managers or financial advisors who have access to these markets. 

Gold ETFs 

Gold ETFs are a more accessible option for individual investors. These funds hold gold and are traded on stock exchanges, reflecting the current market price of gold. Investing in a gold ETF that closely tracks the London OTC market prices allows individuals to indirectly participate in this market.  

Gold Shares in Mining Companies  

Buying shares in gold mining companies is another indirect method. While this does not involve buying gold per se, the share price of these companies is often linked to the price of gold. 

Gold Derivatives 

More sophisticated investors might consider gold derivatives like gold futures and options. These are complex financial instruments that can be used to speculate on the price of gold or hedge against price movements. 

Gold IRAs 

Gold IRAs, or Gold Individual Retirement Accounts, are a type of self-directed IRA (Individual Retirement Account) that allows investors to hold gold as a qualified retirement investment.

Due to the substantial capital required for direct participation in the London OTC gold market, most individuals opt for alternative methods to invest in gold and engage with the gold market. However, although most individuals do not interact directly with the London OTC gold market, their gold investments are impacted by this market.

Quick Guides to Investing

Step 1:

Why Buy Physical Gold and Silver?

If you are concerned about the volatility of the stock market, you’re not alone. The extreme highs and lows of the stock market often lead investors towards safe-haven assets, like bullion. Historically, the Precious Metals market has an inverse relationship with the stock market, meaning that when stocks are up, bullion is down and vice versa.

Step 2:

How Much Gold and Silver Should You Have?

This question is one of the most important for investors to answer. After all, experts suggest limits on how much of any types of investments should go into a portfolio. After deciding to purchase and own Precious Metals and considering how much money to allocate, one can then think about how much and what to buy at any point in time.

Step 3:

Which Precious Metals Should I Buy?

With the frequent changes in the market and countless Precious Metal products available, choosing investments can be difficult. Some want Gold or Silver coins, rounds or bars while others want products that are valuable because of their design, mintage or other collectible qualities. Also, collectors may shop for unique sets and individual pieces for their collections.

Step 4:

When to Buy Gold & Silver

After considering why, how much, and what Precious Metals products to buy, an investor’s next step is when to buy them. This decision requires an understanding of market trends and the impact of economic factors on precious metal prices.

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