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What do the Words ARCHNID AVST DUX Mean on My Maria Theresia Thaler?

The reverse of the Maria Theresa Thaler contains a Latin inscription: “ARCHID. AVST. DUX BURG. CO. TYR.”   

The full language of the abbreviated reverse is “Archidux Austriae, Dux Burgundiae, Comes Tyrolis” or translated from Latin to English: “Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Burgundy, Countess of Tyrol.” 

What do the Words on the Obverse of the Maria Theresa Thaler Say?  

The Obverse of the Maria Theresa Thaler has another abbreviated transcription “M. THERESIA D. G. R. IMP. HU. BO. REG.” Thich is an abbreviation for “Maria Theresia, Dei Gratia Romanorum Imperatrix, Hungariae Bohemiaeque Regina.” 

The English translation of this is “Maria Theresa, by the grace of God, Empress of the Romans, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia.” 

What was the Maria Theresa Thaler? 

The Maria Theresa Thaler (MTT) is a silver coin that has been minted and used in international trade consistently since its introduction in 1741. Maria Theresa ruled the Habsburg Empire, which included Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia from 1740 until her death in 1780.  

She was the only woman to hold the position Suo Jure (in her own right). Before her ascendence, the Habsburgs held Spain and her empire from 1516 until 1740, as well as the title of Holy Roman Emperor from 1438 until the year 1740. 

Maria Theresa’s Rule 

Maria Theresa’s reforms were centered around improving the quality of life for those living under her rule, centralizing power and law, and bringing her lands into the modern era. 

Maria Theresa was an advocate for education, implementing reforms to improve the schools in her territories with a focus on primary schools and the instruction of educators. 

Her legal reforms involved codifying laws like the Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana, a criminal code introduced to standardize criminal law. It covered criminal justice, encompassing procedures, definitions of crimes, as well as penalties for those crimes. 

Theresa’s economic reforms were implemented to provide greater financial stability. Her focus was on modernizing farming and ranching practices, as well as promoting trade. 

Origins of the Habsburg Dynasty 

The Habsburg Dynasty has roots that go back as far as the 10th century. The name is derived from the Swiss Habitchtsburg, which translates to Hawk’s Castle.  

The empire began with Count Radbot of Klettgau. Count Radbot built Habsburg Castle in what is now Habsburg, Switzerland in the canton of Aragau. When the castle was built, it was part of Duchy of Swabia. 

It is rumored that the Count named the castle after spotting a hawk perched on its walls. However, some linguists believe that name comes from the Middle High German word hab/hap, which means ford. The Habsburg Castle was built near a ford of the Aar River. 

Over time, the Habsburg family grew their influence over European courts through strategic marriages, alliances, and political maneuvers. The Habsburg Empire established strong influence on the Holy Roman Empire and held the Title of Holy Roman Emperor as they wielded political power. 

How did the Habsburg Dynasty End? 

The Habsburg Dynasty ruled various lands until the end of World War I, when Emperor Karl abdicated the throne in 1918. After that, new countries were established among the former territories of the Habsburg Empire. 

The Austrian Mint continues to produce the Maria Theresa Thaler in proof and uncirculated variations. 

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